minutephysics

minutephysics
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Simply put: cool physics and other sweet science.

"If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough."
~Rutherford via Einstein? (wikiquote)

Created by Henry Reich

How To Stop Structures from SHAKING: LEGO Saturn V Tuned Mass Damper

Thanks to LEGO for sponsoring this video. Find your own LEGOs at https://shop.lego.com/?cmp=SOC-OneMinutePhysics or https://shop.lego.com/product?p=21309&cmp=SOC-OneMinutePhysics This video is about Tuned Mass Dampers, which can be used to reduce or avoid unwanted vibrations, swaying, swinging, bending, etc on engineered structures ranging from buildings, skyscrapers, electricity power transmission lines, airplane engines, formula one race cars, etc. TMD's use damped coupled oscillators. REFERENCES Taipei Tower TMD Photo licensed from: Louie Psihoyos http://www.psihoyos.com Coupled oscillators: http://www.reed.edu/physics/faculty/wheeler/documents/Sophmore%20Class%20Notes%202007/Chapter%204.pdf Related things: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stockbridge_damper Applications: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuned_mass_damper#Mass_dampers_in_automobiles Formula 1 cars: http://www.formula1-dictionary.net/mass_damper.html Aircraft engines: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centrifugal_pendulum_absorber Audio speaker cones: https://www.focal.com/en/tmd-tuned-mass-damper Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

un mese fa

The Twins Paradox Hands-On Explanation | Special Relativity Ch. 8

Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant! Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober This video is chapter 8 in my series on special relativity, and it presents a hands-on explanation of the resolution to the Twins Paradox using the mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe. Of course, the Twins paradox can be resolved with an understanding of spacetime intervals, relative inertial frames of reference, etc, but this is a nice hands-on version where you actually measure the proper times on a real, physical spacetime diagram with a ruler. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

2 mesi fa

The Physics of Caramel: How To Make a Caramelized Sugar Cube

Watch the original video in Spanish here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J2Vkv5GQXww This video is about how the physics and chemistry of sugar (in particular, how it melts, and how it caramelizes) is more complicated than you might think. It involves fructose, sucrose, glucose, and a sticky mess. Credits: Gallium melting footage by WorkshopScience https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jow4idr6HNs Chill Day by LAKEY INSPIRED https://soundcloud.com/lakeyinspired Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

2 mesi fa

Feynman's Lost Lecture (ft. 3Blue1Brown)

Check out Grant’s channel: 3blue1brown: https://www.youtube.com/3blue1brown This video recounts a lecture by Richard Feynman giving an elementary demonstration of why planets orbit in ellipses. See the excellent book by Judith and David Goodstein, "Feynman's lost lecture”, for the full story behind this lecture, and a deeper dive into its content. Tweet referenced at the start: https://twitter.com/3blue1brown/status/1016936129117937664 Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: https://soundcloud.com/drschroeder/elizabeth-the-mouse Music by Vincent Rubinetti: https://soundcloud.com/vincerubinetti/one-two-zeta Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

2 mesi fa

Spacetime Intervals: Not EVERYTHING is Relative | Special Relativity Ch. 7

Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant! Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober This video is chapter 7 in my series on special relativity, and it covers the idea that some things AREN'T relative: there IS a sense of absolute length and absolute time, which can be agreed upon from all moving perspectives (as long as they're inertial reference frames). In particular, proper length and proper time, aka the spacetime interval. Essentially, this is the spacetime version of the pythagorean theorem, and we'll explore it using the Lorentz transformations of lengths and time intervals, enacted with a mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

3 mesi fa

Extraterrestrial Cycloids - Why Are They on Europa?

Thanks to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Space Telescope Science Institute for supporting this video. This video is about the cycloid curves on Jupiter's moon Europa - they're ridges or valleys in the icy surface that formed due to some sort of geological or tectonic-esque phenomenon. The answer involves ping pong balls, the pacific ring of fire, subduction, tidal bulges, and tailcracking, REFERENCES Europa image: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/82/PIA19048_realistic_color_Europa_mosaic.jpg Europa “google maps” explorere: https://www.mapaplanet.org/explorer-bin/explorer.cgi?map=Europa&layers=europa_galileo_bw&west=180&south=-90&east=-180&north=90&center_lat=0&center=0&defaultcenter=on&grid=none&stretch=none&projection=SIMP&advoption=NO&info=NO&resolution=2 Cycloid: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cycloid Formation of Europa cycloid cracks: http://pirlwww.lpl.arizona.edu/HIIPS/Publications/hoppa_abstracts/cycloid.html Smashed ping pong ball: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/222359947_fig2_Ping-pong-balls-are-good-macroscopic-examples-for-shells-as-they-display-the-main Dented ping pong balls: http://www.katharine-yi.com/uploads/1/8/4/0/18406703/1399540277.png Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

3 mesi fa

Relativistic Addition of Velocity | Special Relativity Ch. 6

Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant! Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober This video is chapter 6 in my series on special relativity, and it covers the topic of relativistic addition of velocity: aka, how things that are moving relative to one inertial reference frame, which is moving relative to another reference frame, what speed or velocity are those things moving relative to the second frame. We'll show this using the Lorentz transformation of moving worldlines, enacted with a mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

4 mesi fa

Length Contraction and Time Dilation | Special Relativity Ch. 5

Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant! Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober This video is chapter 5 in my series on special relativity, and it covers how things that are moving (that is, moving relative to an inertial reference frame) at different speeds appear to be shorter in length... and longer in length. And shorter in time, and longer in time. It all makes sense, I promise, and is clear when you use the Lorentz transformation of coordinates of the events in question, enacted with a mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

4 mesi fa

Relativity of Simultaneity | Special Relativity Ch. 4

Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant! Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober The previous videos in this series: Chapter 1: Why Relativity is Hard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1rLWVZVWfdY& Chapter 2: Spacetime Diagrams https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTxWAQGgeQw Chapter 3: Lorentz Transformations https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rh0pYtQG5wI This video is chapter 4 in my series on special relativity, and it covers how things that appear simultaneous from one perspective in our universe aren't simultaneous from other moving perspectives - that is, from inertial reference frames moving at different speeds. This is explained via the Lorentz transformation of coordinates of the events in question, enacted with a mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

5 mesi fa

Lorentz Transformations | Special Relativity Ch. 3

Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant! Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober The previous videos in this series: Chapter 1: Why Relativity is Hard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1rLWVZVWfdY& Chapter 2: Spacetime Diagrams https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTxWAQGgeQw This video is chapter 3 in my series on special relativity, and it covers boosts, galilean transformations, newtonian relativity, and of course Lorentz transformations, the constancy of the speed of light, relative changes of velocity between inertial reference frames, etc - some of the stuff Einstein figured out. I introduce the mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

6 mesi fa

The Brown Dwarf Debate

Thanks to NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project and the Space Telescope Science Institute for supporting this video. This video is about the line between Brown dwarfs and gas giant planets (aka super Jupiter's): does it exist? Is it the deuterium-burning threshold? Behavior? Metallicity? Formation? Or is there no meaningful scientific distinction, and are brown dwarfs and giant planets really all on a spectrum with no clear line between them? REFERENCES Giant planet and brown dwarf formation https://arxiv.org/abs/1401.7559 Exoplanets versus brown dwarfs: the CoRoT view and the future https://arxiv.org/abs/1604.00917 Defining and cataloging exoplanets: The exoplanet.eu database https://arxiv.org/abs/1106.0586 A Definition for Giant Planets Based on the Mass-Density Relationship https://arxiv.org/abs/1506.05097 Spatial differences between stars and brown dwarfs: a dynamical origin? https://arxiv.org/abs/1403.7053v1 Hints for Small Disks around Very Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs https://arxiv.org/abs/1705.01952 VLA observations of the disk around the young brown dwarf 2MASS J044427+2512 https://arxiv.org/abs/1707.07197 Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

6 mesi fa

NEW SHOW! | The Science of Seeing

Watch Paradigms Here: http://vrv.co/paradigms And please let me know what you think! Paradigms is a pilot for a new show about how we know what we know, produced in collaboration with MinuteEarth (http://youtube.com/minuteearth), Veritasium (http://youtube.com/veritasium), and Aatish Bhatia. The first episode is about the science of seeing, from the extramission theories of the ancient Greeks (like Plato and Euclid and Galen) to the Islamic scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) who studied the optics of pinhole chambers and images, to Johannes Kepler who understood the role lenses play in vision, to the modern era where we now know that the brain plays a huge role in seeing & processing images from the eyes, too! Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

7 mesi fa

Spacetime Diagrams | Special Relativity Ch. 2

Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysicsSpecialRelativity to learn more about spacetime diagrams and for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant. This video is chapter 2 in my series on special relativity, and it covers spacetime diagrams, rotational and translational symmetry of both time and space, how certain transformations preserve distances (measured in terms of a reference like a meter or second), and so on. We'll wait until the next video to talk about Lorentz transformations, relativity of velocity, minkowski diagrams, and the speed of light. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

7 mesi fa

Why is Relativity Hard? | Special Relativity Chapter 1

Thanks to http://www.brilliant.org/minutephysics for supporting this video! Thanks to my friend Mark Rober (https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCY1kMZp36IQSyNx_9h4mpCg) for making the spacetime globe, and to Grant Sanderson (https://www.youtube.com/3blue1brown) for inspiration. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This is the first in a series of videos about special relativity. This is definitely not an academic course, but it's going to be a more in depth and developed exploration of a single topic than a typical standalone MinutePhysics video. I've been greatly inspired (and heckled) to do this by my friend Grant Sanderson of 3blue1brown who's set the standard for this kind of thing with his excellent series - serieses? - on calculus and linear algebra. So, special relativity. Special relativity is one of the most popularly famous ideas in physics – it's that thing that Einstein figured out about the speed of light and space and time and E=mc^2! It changed our understanding of the universe. And its core ideas are accessible in principle to anyone who understands some basic algebra and geometry - you don't even need to know calculus! And yet in spite of this, special relativity is one of the subjects in physics that confuses the most people, and in many cases turns them away from physics altogether. MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

8 mesi fa

How We Know Black Holes Exist

Thanks to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Space Telescope Science Institute for supporting this video. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about the astronomical amount of astronomical evidence for black holes, ranging from x-ray binaries with accretion disks, supermassive infrared-radiating galactic nuclei black holes, orbital characteristics of high mass binaries, and direct gravitational wave detection of inspiraling merging black hole binaries with LIGO. Yes, they're real. REFERENCES Interactive: Masses in the Stellar Graveyard https://ligo.northwestern.edu/media/mass-plot/index.html Galactic Center Orbital Models and Inner Stellar Distributions Data provided by Andrea Ghez and Sylvana Yelda, UCLA (obtained with the Keck Telescopes) Visualization by Stuart Levy and Robert Patterson, National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign http://avl.ncsa.illinois.edu/astrophysics/galactic-center-orbital-models-and-inner-stellar-distributions Masses of observed black Holes: https://stellarcollapse.org/bhmasses Downloadable LIGO Data: https://losc.ligo.org/events/GW170817/ LIGO Neutron Star Binary Merger: http://www.astronomy.com/news/2017/10/ligo-detects-a-neutron-star-merger Masses of observed neutron stars: https://stellarcollapse.org/nsmasses Cygnus X-1 X-ray binary Black Hole: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cygnus_X-1#Star_system Lecture notes on black holes: http://eagle.phys.utk.edu/guidry/astro616/lectures/lecture_ch18.pdf Calvera isolated neutron star X-ray source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calvera_(X-ray_source) Scientific American: pulsar that behaves like a black hole https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/black-hole-pretenders-may-be-superfast-spinning-pulsars/ Largest known neutron star: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PSR_J0348%2B0432 http://simbad.u-strasbg.fr/simbad/sim-id?Ident=PSR+J0348%2B0432 Large Neutron Star: https://arxiv.org/abs/0712.0024 Wandering Black Hole: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/chandra/x-ray-telescopes-find-evidence-for-wandering-black-hole.html Sagittarius A* Black Hole Infrared emissions: https://arxiv.org/pdf/0911.4659.pdf MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

9 mesi fa

The Unreasonable Efficiency of Black Holes

Thanks to https://brilliant.org/minutephysics for sponsoring this video! Check out their black hole course at http://brilliant.org/minutephysicsblackhole Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about how efficient various reactions are at converting mass to energy (as we know from the Einstein mass-energy equivalence of E=mc^2). Antimatter is very efficient but it is not naturally-occurring. Chemical reactions like fire or explosions are very inefficient. Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion are better, but not amazing on an absolute scale. Non-rotating black holes (Schwarzschild) and rotating (Kerr) are by far the most efficient, due to their accretion disks and very small radius of their innermost stable circular orbits. REFERENCES: Periodic Videos Hydrogen Explosion in slow motion: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qOTgeeTB_kA CIA World Factbook Norway Energy Consumption: https://web.archive.org/web/20120128032332/https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2042rank.html Binding Energy: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binding_energy Hydrogen molecular bonding: https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/chemistry/5-73-introductory-quantum-mechanics-i-fall-2005/lecture-notes/sec13.pdf Gibbs free energy of water formation: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_Gibbs_free_energy_of_formation Party Balloon Size Chart: https://broadwaypartyrental.com/wp-content/uploads/HELIUM-BALOON-CHART.pdf Mass Excess https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_excess Table of Mass Excesses: http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/masses/mass.mas12 Deuterium-Tritium Hydrogen Fusion Energy Released: http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=((deuterium+atomic+mass)%2B(tritium+atomic+mass)-(helium-4+atomic+mass)-(neutron+mass))%2F((deuterium+atomic+mass)%2B(tritium+atomic+mass)) Hydrogen to Helium Fusion chain efficiency: http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=(4(proton+mass)-(helium+4+atomic+mass))%2F(4(proton+mass)) Uranium-235 fission efficiency: http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=(neutron+mass%2B(uranium+235+atomic+mass)-(krypton+92+atomic+mass)-(barium+141+atomic+mass)-3(neutron+mass))%2F(neutron+mass%2B(uranium+235+atomic+mass)) Black Hole Accretion rates: http://www-astro.physics.ox.ac.uk/~garret/teaching/lecture7-2012.pdf MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

9 mesi fa

The Black Hole Tipping Point

Thanks to https://brilliant.org/minutephysics/ for sponsoring this video! Check out their black hole course at https://brilliant.org/minutephysicsblackhole Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole, (its "event horizon"), and how much mass and density is required to reach the point of no return where an object like a star, neutron star, red giant, etc will collapse into a black hole singularity. You can calculate it yourself using just the volume equation for a sphere, and the equation for the Schwarzschild radius (and knowing the speed of light and Newton's gravitational constant). REFERENCES Lecture notes on black holes: http://eagle.phys.utk.edu/guidry/astro616/lectures/lecture_ch18.pdf Mass of cat: https://www.google.com/search?q=mass+of+cat&oq=mass+of+cat Schwarzschild radius: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwarzschild_radius LIGO Neutron Star Binary Merger: http://www.astronomy.com/news/2017/10/ligo-detects-a-neutron-star-merger Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff Limit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tolman%E2%80%93Oppenheimer%E2%80%93Volkoff_limit Neutron Star Equation of State & Density: http://chimera.roma1.infn.it/OMAR/dottorato/papers/annurev-nucl-102711-095018.pdf Neutron Star Radius: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.928.903&rep=rep1&type=pdf MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

10 mesi fa

Are University Admissions Biased? | Simpson's Paradox Part 2

Simpson's Paradox Part 2. Thanks to Skillshare for supporting this video! Head to http://skl.sh/minutephysics for your first two months free. Comments disabled because the discourse failed to remain civil. This video is about how to tell whether or not university admissions are biased using statistics: aka, it's about Simpson's Paradox again! REFERENCES: Original Berkeley Grad Admissions Paper: https://www.unc.edu/~nielsen/soci708/cdocs/Berkeley_admissions_bias.pdf Interactive Simpson’s Paradox Explainer: http://vudlab.com/simpsons/ No Lawsuit, But Yes, Berkeley Study on Gender Bias https://www.refsmmat.com/posts/2016-05-08-simpsons-paradox-berkeley.html Statistics on college majors by gender: https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/2016menu\_tables.asp http://www.npr.org/sections/money/2014/10/28/359419934/who-studies-what-men-women-and-college-majors http://www.randalolson.com/2014/06/14/percentage-of-bachelors-degrees-conferred-to-women-by-major-1970-2012/ Earnings by college major: http://time.com/money/collection-post/3829776/heres-what-the-average-grad-makes-right-out-of-college/ Wall Street Journal Article on Simpson’s Paradox: https://www.wsj.com/news/articles/SB125970744553071829 Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

11 mesi fa

Time Travel in Fiction Rundown

Thanks to YouTube RED’s new original series, LIFELINE, for sponsoring this video. Watch the first episode for free: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ru4zkxNuJ_I And thanks to my friends Sam and Niko (and all the rest) at the Corridor Digital channel for making awesome videos. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ For ages I’ve been thinking about doing a video analyzing time travel in fiction and doing a comparison of different fictional time travels – some do use wormholes, some relativistic/faster than light travel with time dilation, some closed timelike curves, some have essentially “magic” or no consistent rules that make any sense, or TARDIS's, or whatever. This video is an explanation of how time travel functions in different popular movies, books, & shows – not how it works “under the hood", but how it causally affects the perspective of characters’ timelines (who has free will? can you change things by going back to the past or forwards into the future?). In particular, I explain Ender's Game, Planet of the Apes, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Primer, Bill & Ted’s Excellent Adventure, Back to the Future, Groundhog Day, Looper, the video game “Braid”, and Lifeline. MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

11 mesi fa

Simpson's Paradox

Thanks to https://brilliant.org/minutephysics for sponsoring this video! This video is about Simpson's paradox, a statistical paradox and ecological fallacy where seemingly contradictory results are implied by a single set of data depending on how it's grouped. The paradox can arise in medical studies, student test scores, and so on. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ REFERENCES: Interactive Simpson’s Paradox Explainer: http://vudlab.com/simpsons/ Wisconsin vs Texas schools: http://educationnext.org/are-wisconsin-schools-better-than-those-in-texas/ Detailed analysis of Wisconsin vs Texas schools: http://iowahawk.typepad.com/iowahawk/2011/03/longhorns-17-badgers-1.html National US Standardized Test Data: https://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/report.aspx?p=2-SCI-3-20153,20113,20093-SRPUV-SDRACE-NP,AL,AK,AZ,AR,CA,CO,CT,DE,DC,FL,GA,HI,ID,IL,IN,IA,KS,KY,LA,ME,MD,MA,MI,MN,MS,MO,MT,NE,NV,NH,NJ,NM,NY,NC,ND,OH,OK,OR,PA,RI,SC,SD,TN,TX,UT,VT,VA,WA,WV,WI,WY,DS-MN_MN-Y_J-0-0-5 MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

11 mesi fa