minutephysics

minutephysics
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Simply put: cool physics and other sweet science.

"If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough."
~Rutherford via Einstein? (wikiquote)

Created by Henry Reich

The Black Hole Tipping Point

Thanks to https://brilliant.org/minutephysics/ for sponsoring this video! Check out their black hole course at https://brilliant.org/minutephysicsblackhole Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole, (its "event horizon"), and how much mass and density is required to reach the point of no return where an object like a star, neutron star, red giant, etc will collapse into a black hole singularity. You can calculate it yourself using just the volume equation for a sphere, and the equation for the Schwarzschild radius (and knowing the speed of light and Newton's gravitational constant). REFERENCES Lecture notes on black holes: http://eagle.phys.utk.edu/guidry/astro616/lectures/lecture_ch18.pdf Mass of cat: https://www.google.com/search?q=mass+of+cat&oq=mass+of+cat Schwarzschild radius: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwarzschild_radius LIGO Neutron Star Binary Merger: http://www.astronomy.com/news/2017/10/ligo-detects-a-neutron-star-merger Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff Limit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tolman%E2%80%93Oppenheimer%E2%80%93Volkoff_limit Neutron Star Equation of State & Density: http://chimera.roma1.infn.it/OMAR/dottorato/papers/annurev-nucl-102711-095018.pdf Neutron Star Radius: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.928.903&rep=rep1&type=pdf MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

2 weeks ago

Are University Admissions Biased? | Simpson's Paradox Part 2

Simpson's Paradox Part 2. Thanks to Skillshare for supporting this video! Head to http://skl.sh/minutephysics for your first two months free. Comments disabled because the discourse failed to remain civil. This video is about how to tell whether or not university admissions are biased using statistics: aka, it's about Simpson's Paradox again! REFERENCES: Original Berkeley Grad Admissions Paper: https://www.unc.edu/~nielsen/soci708/cdocs/Berkeley_admissions_bias.pdf Interactive Simpson’s Paradox Explainer: http://vudlab.com/simpsons/ No Lawsuit, But Yes, Berkeley Study on Gender Bias https://www.refsmmat.com/posts/2016-05-08-simpsons-paradox-berkeley.html Statistics on college majors by gender: https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/2016menu\_tables.asp http://www.npr.org/sections/money/2014/10/28/359419934/who-studies-what-men-women-and-college-majors http://www.randalolson.com/2014/06/14/percentage-of-bachelors-degrees-conferred-to-women-by-major-1970-2012/ Earnings by college major: http://time.com/money/collection-post/3829776/heres-what-the-average-grad-makes-right-out-of-college/ Wall Street Journal Article on Simpson’s Paradox: https://www.wsj.com/news/articles/SB125970744553071829 Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

1 month ago

Time Travel in Fiction Rundown

Thanks to YouTube RED’s new original series, LIFELINE, for sponsoring this video. Watch the first episode for free: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ru4zkxNuJ_I And thanks to my friends Sam and Niko (and all the rest) at the Corridor Digital channel for making awesome videos. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ For ages I’ve been thinking about doing a video analyzing time travel in fiction and doing a comparison of different fictional time travels – some do use wormholes, some relativistic/faster than light travel with time dilation, some closed timelike curves, some have essentially “magic” or no consistent rules that make any sense, or TARDIS's, or whatever. This video is an explanation of how time travel functions in different popular movies, books, & shows – not how it works “under the hood", but how it causally affects the perspective of characters’ timelines (who has free will? can you change things by going back to the past or forwards into the future?). In particular, I explain Ender's Game, Planet of the Apes, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Primer, Bill & Ted’s Excellent Adventure, Back to the Future, Groundhog Day, Looper, the video game “Braid”, and Lifeline. MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

1 month ago

Simpson's Paradox

Thanks to https://brilliant.org/minutephysics for sponsoring this video! This video is about Simpson's paradox, a statistical paradox and ecological fallacy where seemingly contradictory results are implied by a single set of data depending on how it's grouped. The paradox can arise in medical studies, student test scores, and so on. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ REFERENCES: Interactive Simpson’s Paradox Explainer: http://vudlab.com/simpsons/ Wisconsin vs Texas schools: http://educationnext.org/are-wisconsin-schools-better-than-those-in-texas/ Detailed analysis of Wisconsin vs Texas schools: http://iowahawk.typepad.com/iowahawk/2011/03/longhorns-17-badgers-1.html National US Standardized Test Data: https://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/report.aspx?p=2-SCI-3-20153,20113,20093-SRPUV-SDRACE-NP,AL,AK,AZ,AR,CA,CO,CT,DE,DC,FL,GA,HI,ID,IL,IN,IA,KS,KY,LA,ME,MD,MA,MI,MN,MS,MO,MT,NE,NV,NH,NJ,NM,NY,NC,ND,OH,OK,OR,PA,RI,SC,SD,TN,TX,UT,VT,VA,WA,WV,WI,WY,DS-MN_MN-Y_J-0-0-5 MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

1 month ago

How to Build a Teleporter with Aliens

The first 200 people to use http://skl.sh/minutephysics30 get 30% off a premium Skillshare subscription. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about the international system of units (SI), the international prototype kilogram (the IPK or "le grande k"), and specifically, why we need to redefine our base units in terms of fundamental constants - aka, concepts & ideas - rather than physical objects. The second is already defined in terms of a certain number of oscillations of a photon of the ground state hyperfine splitting energy of Cesium, the meter is then defined as how far light travels in a particular fraction of a second, and hopefully soon, the kilogram will be defined either using the Avogadro approach of counting silicon atoms in a sphere, or using the Watt (Kibble) Balance approach of measuring Planck's constant, h, as used in the formula E=hf for the energy of a photon, which relates to mass via Einstein's famous E=mc^2. REFERENCES: Most Recent Kilogram/Planck Constant Measurement: https://www.nist.gov/news-events/news/2017/06/new-measurement-will-help-redefine-international-unit-mass International Bureau of Weights and Measures page: http://www.bipm.org/en/measurement-units/base-units.html Future Definitions of SI Base Units: http://www.bipm.org/en/measurement-units/rev-si/ Resolution to redefine Kilogram, ampere, kelvin and mole based on fundamental constants: http://www.bipm.org/en/CGPM/db/25/1/ Hyperfine levels of an atom (Cesium, in this case): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_level#Hyperfine_structure https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperfine_structure Cesium: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesium#Atomic_clocks Atomic Clocks: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_clock MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

2 months ago

Solar Panels Made With a Particle Accelerator?!

Find more about investing in Rayton solar on http://startengine.com/startup/rayton-solar And on http://www.RaytonSolar.com Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about using particle accelerators as part of the solar panel silicon wafer manufacturing process. The accelerators embed protons into the wafer crystals, allowing them to break and separate from the main crystal in much thinner wafers with no waste silicon. Thus, monocrystalline silicon can be used, which is more efficient. MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

2 months ago

Bell's Theorem: The Quantum Venn Diagram Paradox

Featuring 3Blue1Brown Watch the 2nd video on 3Blue1Brown here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzRCDLre1b4 Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about Bell's Theorem, one of the most fascinating results in 20th century physics. Even though Albert Einstein (together with collaborators in the EPR Paradox paper) wanted to show that quantum mechanics must be incomplete because it was nonlocal (he didn't like "spooky action at a distance"), John Bell managed to prove that any local real hidden variable theory would have to satisfy certain simple statistical properties that quantum mechanical experiments (and the theory that describes them) violate. Since then, GHZ and others have managed to extend the theoretical work, and Alain Aspect performed the first Bell test experiment in the late 1980s. Thanks to Vince Rubinetti for the music: https://soundcloud.com/vincerubinetti/one-two-zeta And thanks to Evan Miyazono, Aatish Bhatia, and Jasper Palfree for discussions and camaraderie during some of the inception of this video. REFERENCES: John Bell's Original Paper: http://inspirehep.net/record/31657/files/vol1p195-200_001.pdf Quantum Theory and Reality: https://www.scientificamerican.com/media/pdf/197911_0158.pdf "What Bell Did" By Tim Maudlin: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1408.1826 Bell's Theorem on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell%27s_theorem 2015 experimental confirmation that QM violates Bell's theorem: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1508.05949.pdf https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.250402 Bell's Theorem without Inequalities (GHZ): http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.16243 Kochen-Specker Theorem: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kochen–Specker_theorem MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

3 months ago

Myths and Facts About Superintelligent AI

Join the AI conversation: http://AgeofAI.org This video was based on Max’s book "Life 3.0”, which you can find at: http://amzn.to/2iEwe6w Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ We live in an era of self driving cars, autonomous drones, deep learning algorithms, computers that beat humans at chess and go, and so on. So it’s natural to ask, will artificial superintelligence replace humans, take our jobs, and destroy human civilization? Or will AI just become tools like regular computers. AI researcher Max Tegmark helps explain the myths and facts about superintelligence, the impending machine takeover, etc. MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

3 months ago

Misconceptions Footnote †: Randomness and Feedback

Footnote to the main video here: https://youtu.be/HUti6vGctQM Feedback loops and spurious correlations! REFERENCES: Spurious correlations: http://www.tylervigen.com/spurious-correlations Loopy by Nicky Case: http://ncase.me/loopy/ CERN/CMS paper on di-photon excess: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2139899 Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

3 months ago

Correlation CAN Imply Causation! | Statistics Misconceptions

Have fun improving your math & physics skills! Head to http://brilliant.org/minutephysics Footnote video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iMbcMMe0D_Y This video is about how causal models (which use causal networks) allow us to infer causation from correlation, proving the common refrain not entirely accurate: statistics CAN be used to prove causality! Including: Reichenbach's principle, common causes, feedback, entanglement, EPR paradox, and so on. REFERENCES: Causal Discovery Algorithm in Quantum Mechanics Paper: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1208.4119.pdf Causal Models overview (Quantum and Classical): https://arxiv.org/pdf/1609.09487.pdf Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

3 months ago

Black Holes, Neutron Stars, and White Dwarfs (Collab. w/ MinuteEarth)

Watch the MinuteEarth video here – I PROMISE it's really really really good: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pAI1N96t8Vk MinutePhysics & MinuteEarth are on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics and http://www.patreon.com/minuteearth This video is about the differences between the corpses or final degenerate dense star forms that dead stars take: black holes, neutron stars, and white dwarfs. The main distinguishing features between them are the mass cutoffs (Chandrasekhar limit and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff Limit), the matter that makes them up (electrons, protons, neutrons, singularity?), and what holds them up against gravity – not thermal pressure from nuclear fusion like in a star like the sun, but electron or neutron degeneracy pressure (fermi pressure/pauli exclusion principle), and the strong nuclear force, and... nothing (in the case of a black hole). REFERENCES: Chandrasekhar Limit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandrasekhar_limit Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff Limit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff_limit Richard Pogge (Ohio State) on Neutron & White Dwarf Stars: http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~pogge/Ast162/Unit3/extreme.html Richard Pogge on Star Formation: http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~pogge/Ast162/Unit2/starform.html Richard Pogge on Black Holes Differences between galaxies and galaxy clusters: https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn20026-when-is-a-group-of-stars-not-a-galaxy/ Introductory/review Paper on Neutron Stars: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1102.5735.pdf White dwarf stars on hyperphysics: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Astro/whdwar.html Brown Dwarf: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_dwarf Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

4 months ago

Will Batteries Power The World? | The Limits Of Lithium-ion

$2000 Anker Contest Link: http://bit.ly/2u5YUqb Link to the PowerCore+ 26800 (the one I showed in the video): http://amzn.to/2vwh9Jr Real Engineering's video: https://youtu.be/ahxBbEwhIE0 Sam and Niko channel: http://www.youtube.com/samandniko Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ Can Batteries Power Everything? This video is about the physical and chemical limitations to electrolytic batteries, and how we might surpass the energy density and specific energy of lithium-ion batteries (like the Panasonic 18650 batteries used in the Tesla Model S, for example). REFERENCES: Lithium Fluorine Hydrogen NASA Rocket fuel test: https://archive.org/details/nasa\_techdoc\_19700018655 Limits on Cell Potential of Batteries: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrochemical_cell Lithium Ion Batteries: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium-ion\_battery Standard Electrode Potential for Lithium, Lithium Graphite, etc: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard\_electrode\_potential\_(data\_page) Trends in Gravimetric Energy Density (Specific Energy): https://www.researchgate.net/figure/255748970\_fig1\_Fig-3-Trend-of-capacity-and-energy-density-increase-in-18-650-cylindrical-type-Li-ion Elon Musk/Telsa on why Lithium-ion is not exactly a lithium battery: http://benchmarkminerals.com/elon-musk-our-lithium-ion-batteries-should-be-called-nickel-graphite/ Lithium Sulfur Problems: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378775312019568?via%3Dihub https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225512575\_Lithium-sulfur\_batteries\_Problems\_and\_solutions Supercapacitors: http://www.electronicdesign.com/power/can-supercapacitors-surpass-batteries-energy-storage Panasonic 18650B Battery specs: https://na.industrial.panasonic.com/sites/default/pidsa/files/ncr18650b.pdf Anker PowerCore+ 26800 disassembled: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qJS3m\_CGbeY Types of Lithium Ion Batteries: http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/types\_of\_lithium\_ion Batteries & Electrochemical Cells on Hyperphysics: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Chemical/electrochem.html MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

4 months ago

What Is The Shape of Space? (ft. PhD Comics)

A collaboration with Jorge Cham and Daniel Whiteson, check out "We Have No Idea" at http://www.wehavenoidea.com Jorge's PhDComics: http://www.phdcomics.com Numberphile video about sports in hyperbolic space: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u6Got0X41pY Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 This video is about the local and global geometry and curvature of space and spacetime, aka, is space flat? Negatively curved? Positively curved? etc. Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

4 months ago

Why It's HARD To Land on Mars

Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics This video is about why it's harder to successfully land spacecraft and landers and rovers on Mars than on Earth, or Venus, or the Moon, or Titan, or asteroids. It all comes down to atmospheric density! When there's no atmosphere, you can do a powered descent in a flimsy tinfoil spacecraft like the Lunar Module, and when there's plenty of atmosphere you can do an unpowered descent via heat shield and parachutes like the space shuttle, Apollo command module, Soyuz, Huygens, etc. But on Mars with its thin air, you have to do both powered & unpowered descent, getting the worst of both worlds. Thanks to Hoppy Price from JPL for fact-checking this video! Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ REFERENCES Spreadsheet to calculate landing success rates: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1jqeZCG56UBKvd\_wsyW3GD-qd9TAsaW1RPAiZ-1BCUaE/edit?usp=sharing NASA Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Fact Sheets: https://www.nasa.gov/pdf/737628main\_Final\_LDSD\_Fact\_Sheet\_3-26-13.pdf https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/press\_kits/ldsd.pdf LDSD Test Footage: https://www.nasa.gov/mission\_pages/tdm/ldsd/videos.html More LDSD Test Footage:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lJzeeYoLn50 List of Missions to Mars: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List\_of\_missions\_to\_Mars List of Missions to the Moon: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List\_of\_missions\_to\_the\_Moon List of Missions to Saturn: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exploration\_of\_Saturn List of Missions to Venus: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List\_of\_missions\_to\_Venus Curiosity Rover Landing Overview: https://mars.nasa.gov/msl/mission/technology/insituexploration/edl/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

5 months ago

The "Mountain Or Valley?" Illusion

Thanks to Skillshare for supporting this video: http://skl.sh/MinutePhysics for 2 free months! This video is about a multistable perceptual illusion, similar to the hollow face illusion, whereby maps or aerial or satellite photos look upside down/inside out, ie, concave (valley) parts look convex and convex (mountainous) parts look concave. Just flip the images around and things will make a lot more sense! It's just because our eyes gauge depth based on the location of shadows, and the sun always casts shadows on the bottoms of things. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 REFERENCES Twitter posts: https://twitter.com/Astro2fish/status/859799730565414912 https://twitter.com/BadAstronomer/status/859800278358528001 Bad Astronomy Blog post: http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/badastronomy/2010/05/19/a-lunar-illusion-youll-flip-over/ Multistable perception http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multistable_perception Top-left Lighting http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Top-left_lighting Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

5 months ago

Quantum SHAPE-SHIFTING: Neutrino Oscillations

Thanks to the Heising-Simons Foundation for supporting this video: http://www.heisingsimons.org CRAZY Double Pendulum Footnote: https://youtu.be/gbJYK7q5ejY Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations, which is where neutrinos can change flavors (ie, change between electron, muon, or tau neutrinos) because those interaction states are in non-trivial superpositions of the free traveling/mass eigenstates (𝜈1, 𝜈2 and 𝜈3). MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 REFERENCES History of Neutrino Oscillations: https://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0610064.pdf Solar Neutrino Problem: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_neutrino_problem Neutrino Oscillation on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutrino_oscillation#Propagation_and_interference Current best fit data for the mixing of neutrinos: http://www.nu-fit.org/?q=node/139 Neutrino Mixing Matrix: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontecorvo–Maki–Nakagawa–Sakata_matrix Neutrino Oscillation https://profmattstrassler.com/articles-and-posts/particle-physics-basics/neutrinos/neutrino-types-and-neutrino-oscillations/ Neutrino Masses paper: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1307.3518.pdf Neutral Particle Oscillation: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutral_particle_oscillation Technical Intro to Neutrino Mass Mixing: http://pdg.lbl.gov/2015/reviews/rpp2015-rev-neutrino-mixing.pdf PROSPECT project: http://prospect.yale.edu/science Neutrino/nucleon deep inelastic scattering: https://www.nevis.columbia.edu/ccfr/index.html Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

6 months ago

Footnote †: Double Pendulums Are Crazy

A footnote to the video about Neutrino Shape-Shifting: https://youtu.be/7fgKBJDMO54 Sixty Symbols Video on Double Pendulum: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=izy4a5erom8 Physics of The Double Pendulum: http://www.theorphys.science.ru.nl/people/fasolino/sub_java/pendula/doublependul-en.shtml Neutral particle oscillation (like neutrino oscillation) is a superposition effect, and a similar effect can also be seen in a coupled double pendulum system where the interaction states are in superpositions of the "free" modes (called eigenstates). Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

6 months ago

Footnote †: Unstable Equilibrium

This video is a footnote for the video about the ring around the earth: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4xSPlQUejd8 Essentially, a ring around the earth is in unstable equilibrium, so it would stay put, but then fall one way or the other as soon as any asymmetry (even thermal or quantum fluctuations) developed. MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

6 months ago

Ring AROUND the Earth?

Thanks to http://www.squarespace.com/minutephysics for sponsoring this video; you can use offer code MINUTEPHYSICS at checkout for 10% off your first purchase. Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about what would happen if we built a giant ring around earth – what would happen to the ring, that is. Would if fall? Collapse? Start spinning? REFERENCES: Why Isn’t It Faster to Fly West? Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3gNkgj9h2oM Physics Girl Quarter Shrinking: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d2TDXKfBaMQ Symmetry Breaking: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symmetry_breaking Forces through gauge symmetry: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Uh5mTxRQcg Higgs Boson: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Uh5mTxRQcg MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

6 months ago

How Do We Know The Universe Is ACCELERATING?

Support MinutePhysics on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Aatish Bhatia helped write this video! A big thanks for his help! Here's his blog: http://www.empiricalzeal.com The universe is expanding – this we know from looking at red shifts of distant galaxies – but the acceleration of the universe's expansion is harder to measure. It requires measuring the change of recession velocity over time, and it's done by comparing Type Ia supernovas as standard candles at different distances, which is how we know the universe is accelerating! Thanks to everyone who supports MinutePhysics on Patreon! Link to Patreon supporters here: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters.html REFERENCES Type Ia supernovae http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Astro/snovcn.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_Ia_supernova Luminosity Distance https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luminosity_distance Hubble diagram for type Ia supernovas (relatively close to earth): http://www.pnas.org/content/101/1/8/F3.expansion http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~thompson/1101/lecture_fate_of_universe.html Straightforward references: Ryan Foley talking about WFIRST & Dark Energy https://youtu.be/BhOAwXYKdmw?t=23m Dark Energy FAQ: http://www.preposterousuniverse.com/blog/2011/10/04/dark-energy-faq/ Why does dark energy make the universe accelerate? http://www.preposterousuniverse.com/blog/2013/11/16/why-does-dark-energy-make-the-universe-accelerate/ David Spergel on dark matter & WFIRST https://tvr2c.com/2016/06/01/53116-show-feat-professor-david-spergel-on-his-research-spanning-astrophysical-scales/ Slightly-technical references: Permlutter article (old article but quite well explained & goes into future directions near the end) http://supernova.lbl.gov/PDFs/PhysicsTodayArticle.pdf Technical references: Mukhanov’s Physical Cosmology http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~george/ay21/readings/Mukhanov_PhysFoundCosm.pdf Nobel Prize Summary http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2011/advanced-physicsprize2011.pdf Cosmological redshift https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redshift#Expansion_of_space MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich

7 months ago